Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is considered the greatest and the most influential man in world history. We present this article as a humble introduction to our beloved Prophet.
Biographical Sketch of the Prophet (pbuh)
Our Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the son of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim bins ‘Abd Manaf. His genealogy goes to ‘Adnan in the 21st stage of his generation and ‘Adnan is the descendent of Isma’il (in the 40th stage. Isma’il (pbuh) was the eldest son of Ibrahim, the friend of Allah. The Prophet (pbuh) was born at Makkah on the 9th Rabi-ul-Awwal. His father had died before he was born. His mother passed away, when he was six years old. Her name was Aminah. Her lineage merges with the Prophet’s paternal side three generations earlier. When the Prophet (pbuh) was eight years two months and ten days old, his grandfather breathed his last. Abu Talib, who was his father’s own brother, became his guardian. In the thirteenth year of his life, he proceeded on a journey to Syria with his uncle but he came back from the onward journey. When he became an adult, he was engaged in trade for some time. When he was 25 years old, he married Khadijah. Then he devoted his time either in prayers to Allah or to the welfare of the people. In the same year a dispute arose over the construction of the Ka’bah. All men made him an arbitrator as he was considered truthful and trustworthy among the people of the place.
First Nine years of the Prophethood
When he was forty years and one day old, revelation dawned upon him that he was the Messenger of Allah. Khadijah (wife), Ali Murtuda, (cousin aged 10 years), Abu Bakr Siddiq (friend), and Zaid bin Harithah (his slave) soon accepted his Faith. On the instructions of Abu Bakr Siddiq, Uthman Ghani, Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf, Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas, Talhah and Zubair accepted Islam. Abu Ubaidah, Abu Salamah, Arqam, ‘Uthman bin Maz’un, ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud, Ubaidah bin Al-Harith, Sa’id bin Zaid, Yasir, ‘Ammar and Bilal embraced Islam after them. Among the women, Khadijah and Umm-ul-Fadl (the wife of Abbas) accepted Islam after the Prophet’s daughters. Thereafter Asma’ (Abu Bakr Siddiq’s) daughter) and then Fatimah, (Umar Farooq’s sister) entered into the fold of Islam. For three years, the Prophet (pbuh) silently preached Islam. Then he openly began to propagate the teachings of his religion. He conveyed his messages to people wherever he saw them sitting or standing in groups. The inhabitants of Makkah then began to persecute the Muslims. They had a grievance that Muslims did not worship idols at all. The Muslims suffered the great ordeal for two years. Then being sick of them, they decided to migrate from Makkah.
Migration of the Muslims
In the fifth year of the declaration of prophethood, ‘Uthman Ghani was the first person to leave his hearth and home for Habash (Ethiopia) with his wife Ruqaiyyah, the second daughter of the Prophet. The Prophet (pbuh) announced that ‘Uthman was the first person to migrate for the cause of Allah after Prophet Lut (pbuh). Five women and twelve men also accompanied him till he reached the seacoast. Thereafter many Muslims followed him in the migration to Habash. Among them was also Ja’far Taiyyar who was the own brother of Ali Murtuda. In the sixth year of prophethood, Hamzah (the Prophet’s uncle) and three days later ‘Umar Farooq embraced Islam. Muslims used to say their prayers in hiding till then, but afterwards, they were openly praying in the Ka’bah. In the seventh year of prophethood, the Quraish solemnly decided not to entertain any relationship or establish contacts with the Muslims. They also severed relations and contacts with the Hashimites as they could not keep themselves aloof from the Prophet (pbuh). Sha’b Abi Talib In view of the persecution and ill-treatment, the Prophet (pbuh) and the Hashimi tribe kept themselves into a valley, called ‘Sha’b Abi Talib’. Enemies did not allow eatables to be taken into the place; children, being starved, wept piteously and their cries were heard in the town nearby. Some persons who were kind and compassionate would bring something secretly during night for them to eat. In spite of these difficult situations, the Prophet (pbuh) kept on preaching the principles of the true religion regularly.
10th year of Prophethood
The Prophet (pbuh) went to Ta’if to lecture on Islam. Whenever he stood to address, the people used to throw stones and injure him so badly that he would not be able to take out his shoes as blood would have clotted in them. Once, he received so many assaults that he fell unconscious. Zaid bin Harithah who accompanied him, picked him away from the village. When he sprinkled water over his face, he came into sense. The Prophet (pbuh) left the place and declared that if these people did not accept Islam, their descendants would certainly embrace the religion. After eight years, all the people living in Ta’if reverted to Islam.
11th year of Prophethood
The Prophet (pbuh) preached the message of Islam to those who passed along the ways. One day, he heard the voices of people, while they were talking, he moved towards them. Six men from Al-Madinah were staying there. The Prophet (pbuh) delivered a lecture and taught them the principles of Islam and they accepted Islam.
12th year of Prophethood
When he was 51 years and 5 months old, he achieved Mi’raj (the Ascension) on the 27th day of Rajab. It was made compulsory for Muslims to observe their prayers five times a day. Earlier, the prayers of the morning and evening were observed. During the Hajj season, 18 persons from Al-Madinah came to Makkah and they embraced Islam on the Prophet’s instructions. He also sent Mus’ab bin ‘Umair to Al-Madinah to preach the religion of Islam. In this holy area Islam spread rapidly. By the lectures of Mus’ab, the people belonging to Banu Najjar and Banu Ashhal tribes and other clans accepted Islam within a period of one year.
13th year of Prophethood
Two women and 71 men came from Al-Madinah and reverted to Islam and requested the Prophet (pbuh) to visit Al-Madinah. He agreed to go and stay at Al-Madinah. They also declared to remain firm on the path of Islam and to obey and support the Prophet (pbuh). When the polytheists of Makkah came to know that Islam was spreading outside Makkah as well, they decided to assassinate the Prophet (pbuh). One night they surrounded the Prophet’s house but he came out safely from the besieged house.
The Hijrah (Emigration) to Al-Madinah
Coming out of his house, the Prophet (pbuh) stayed three days and nights in the cave of Thaur. Abu Bakr Siddiq ( was also with him. They came out of the cave on the 1st Rabi-ul-Awwal of 1st AH on Monday. Two camels were ready for transport. On the first camel the Prophet (pbuh) and Siddiq rode, and on the second were ‘Amir bin Fahirah – the slave of Abu Bakr Siddiq (and a man conversant with the routes. And they moved towards Al-Madinah. When the enemies came to know of the departure of the Prophet (pbuh), they announced big rewards for the one who could intercept him or cut off his head and bring it to them. Many people pursued him for the sake of reward but only two persons reached them. One was Malik bin Suraqah, who returned after begging pardon of him for his guilt, and the other was Buraidah Aslami with 70 riders who reverted to Islam soon after seeing his noble face and listening to the verses of the Qur’an, and the Prophet (pbuh) proceeded onward with them.
1st year of Hijrah
1. As soon as the Prophet (pbuh) reached Al-Madinah, he got a mosque constructed for
prayers. The walls were made of mud and the roofs were laid with date leafy stalks.
2. Till then there were only two compulsory Rak’at (units of prayer) for the noon, afternoon and night prayers; but here onwards, four Rak’at were made compulsory for these three times prayers.
3. Agreements were reached with the Jews and the adjoining tribes for peace and friendliness.
4. Bonds of brotherhood developed between Muhajireen (the emigrant Muslims) of Makkah and those of Al-Madinah, called Ansar (helpers). The followers of the same religion loved the Makkans more than their brothers and permitted them to share in their properties on equal terms.
2nd year of Hijrah
1. Regular calls for the prayer began to be observed.
2. Under Allah’s instructions, they now faced the Ka’bah during prayers. Till then, they used to face Bait-ul- Maqdis (Jerusalem) in prayers.
3. Fasting in the month of Ramadan was made compulsory.
4. Battle of Badr.
First Nine years of the Prophethood
1. Regular calls for the prayer began to be observed.
2. Under Allah’s instructions, they now faced the Ka’bah during prayers. Till then, they used to face Bait-ul- Maqdis (Jerusalem) in prayers.
3. Fasting in the month of Ramadan was made compulsory.
4. Battle of Badr.
3rd year of Hijrah
1. Zakat was made compulsory, i.e., every rich Muslim was enjoined to separate 1/40th of his wealth every year for distribution among the poors.
2. Battle of Uhud.
4th year of Hijrah
Wine and alcohol was strictly forbidden.
5th year of Hijrah
1. Woman were enjoined upon to observe Hijab (veil).
2. Battle of Khandaq.
3. Battle of Khaibar.
6th year of Hijrah
The Prophet (pbuh) proceeded towards Makkah for ‘Umrah, but he was stopped to move
forward by the Quraish, 14 miles away from Makkah. The Prophet (pbuh) halted there, and
during his stay there, an agreement with the Quraish was reached on the following
1. Peace be maintained for ten years, travel and transactions should be freely operated. Every tribe is allowed to join hands with the Muslims or the Quraish.
2. The Muslims were allowed to offer their prayers in the Ka’bah the following year.
3. If a person from the Quraish reverts to Islam and reaches the Prophet (pbuh), he or she be sent back to Quraish, but if a Muslim gives up Islam and goes to Quraish, he would not be sent back. On this point the Muslims were perturbed but the Prophet (pbuh) gladly accepted this condition as well. The Quraish thought that no person would revert to Islam in view of this condition. But when the agreement was being drafted, Abu Jandal, son of Suhail (who came to negotiate for the agreement from the Makkans) reached there. He was already a Muslim but he was kept in confinement by the tribe. Getting an opportunity he had fled there. Iron chains were still in his feet. Suhail demanded to hand over his son Abu Jandal according to the terms of the agreement. The Muslims refused to act upon the terms of the agreement as it was not signed by them up till then. Suhail then got agitated and said that they would not enter into an agreement. The Prophet (pbuh) handed over Abu Jandal to them. They then put him again into confinement. He then began to teach the basic principles of Islam in the jail and by this means 300 people embraced Islam within a year at Makkah itself. Everyone who has some sense can understand from this fact how the sincerity of the Prophet (pbuh) and the charms of his religion were captivating hearts that (difficulties like) separation from near and dear ones, distances from native land, fear of sufferings and rigorous imprisonment could not deter people from accepting Islam.
Delegations to the Emperors
In the year 6 AH, the Prophet (pbuh) sent delegates to important emperors of his time and
appealed them to accept Islam. Their names are mentioned here:
1. The king of Habash (Ethiopia), Ashamah Najashi (Negus) accepted Islam under the impact of the letter written by the Prophet (pbuh).
2. The king of Bahrain named Mundhir reverted to Islam. His subjects in large numbers also followed suit.
3. Jaifer, the king of Oman, and his brother embraced Islam.
4. Khosro (Chosroes) was the king of Iran. He tore the letter of the Prophet (pbuh) and asked the ruler of Yemen to send him the Prophet (pbuh) as a captive. The ruler’s name was Bazan. He gathered correct information about the Prophet (pbuh), and embraced Islam. His subjects also followed him.
5. The king of Alexandria was Muqawqas who did not accept Islam, but he sent costly gifts for the Prophet (pbuh).
6. The ruler of Syria was Harith who did not accept the religion of Islam.
7. Haudha was the ruler of Yamamah. He did not embrace Islam.
8. The king of Rome was Hirqil (Heraclius) who first of all gathered information about the Prophet (pbuh). Then he advised his courtiers to accept the faith of Islam but they did not agree to his proposal and were ready to revolt. So the ruler did not accept the Faith lest he should lose his throne. The king collected information about the Prophet (pbuh) by issuing orders to present before him anyone coming from Makkah to Syria. Abu Sufyan was found and was presented to the ruler along with some other men. Abu Sufyan had several skirmishes with the Prophet (pbuh) and he was his strong critic. Abu Sufyan says that he was brought to the town of Elia. The court was full of important royal officers and Hirqil was sitting wearing his crown. He asked his interpreter to ask who was close in kinship to the man who was pronouncing as Prophet (pbuh). Abu Sufyan: I am his kin. Hirqil: What is the nature of kinship ? Abu Sufyan: He is my cousin. And I say so because none in the caravan except me is the descendant of Abd Manaf. Hirqil: Call him to come in front and get his colleagues stand beside him. I shall ask him some questions. Direct colleagues to point out when Abu Sufyan told a lie. Abu Sufyan said that he would have said many things but he did not as he was afraid of being contradicted by his colleagues. Hirqil: What is his lineage? Abu Sufyan: He comes of a good family. Hirqil: Did anyone make a claim like this before? Abu Sufyan: No. Hirqil: Did any one allege him to be a liar? Abu Sufyan: No. Hirqil: Was any one of his forefathers a king? Abu Sufyan: No. Hirqil: Who is accepting his religion, the rich or the poor? Abu Sufyan: The poor. Hirqil: Are his followers increasing or decreasing? Abu Sufyan: They are increasing. Hirqil: Do his followers retract in disgust? Abu Sufyan: No. Hirqil: Does he break pledges? Abu Sufyan: No, but an agreement has been recently reached between us, and I hope he would deviate from the agreed terms. Abu Sufyan said that he could not say anything beyond this against the Prophet (pbuh) lest his companions might contradict. Hirqil: Did you have skirmishes with him? Abu Sufyan: Yes. Hirqil: What was the result? Abu Sufyan: Sometimes he won and sometimes we did. Hirqil: What is his message? Abu Sufyan: He asks us to worship only one God and attribute no partners to Him in this respect. He also says not to worship idols or deities of ancestors. He directs us to offer prayers and give alms. He also exhorts us to be pious and God-fearing, observant of promises and trustworthy. The letter of the Messenger (pbuh) to the chief of Bahrain Mundhir bin Sawi inviting him to embrace Islam. The king then asked his interpreter to explain to him (Abu Sufyan): “You say that he is of a good lineage. Prophets are always of good lineage. You also admit that none had made such claims earlier. Had this been the case, I would have concluded that he was also following them. You admit that none had made any allegation against him of telling a lie before his declaration of being a Prophet. So it is not possible that he is telling a lie about God when he has not behaved as such in human dealings. You also admit that none among his ancestors was a ruler. Had it been so, there could have been a case for pretension to acquire a kingdom. You again admit that the poor and destitute are entering upon his religious kingdom. And history speaks that only such people are first attracted to Prophets. You also agree that the Muslims are increasing in number. This indicates the impact of Faith which goes on progressing till it is perfected. You also admit that none retract from his Faith. This is the proof of the efficacy of Faith which once grounded in the heart, does not recoil. You agree that he never breaks his promises. Undoubtedly Prophets are made of such stuff. You say that there had been battles between you and him, and sometimes you won and sometimes he had won. Prophets, too, are put to such tests but ultimately victory is theirs. You told that he asks people to worship none but only one God. He also forbids idol worship or paying respect to other deities. He asks to offer prayers and be truthful, pious and trustworthy. These are doubtless the ways of the Prophets.” The king further added that he knew that a Prophet was about to appear but he never thought he would emerge from Arabia. He (Hirqil) further said: “See, if your statements are true, he would sweep this country as well where I am reigning today. I long to be with him and wash his feet.” After 6th H, many other important chiefs embraced Islam. They first heard about Islam. They inquired about it and accepted the religion of Islam when they were satisfied and convinced about its truthfulness. The following is the list of the important persons:
7th year of Hijrah
1. Thamamah, the ruler of Najd embraced Islam in 7 H.
2. Jablah, the king of Ghassan also embraced Islam in 7 H.
3. Farwah bin ‘Amr Khuza’i. He was sent as governor of Syria by Hirqil. When the king heard that Farwah had reverted to Islam (in 7 AH), he called him and asked him to give up his new faith but he did not yield to his order. The king then sent him to jail. Despite this he remained firm in his belief. He was then sent to the gallows. In spite of this confinement and his suffering he thanked Allah that he was dying for the cause of Islam.
4. Khalid bin Walid.
5. ‘Uthman bin Abu Talhah.
6. Amr bin ‘Aas was the famous chief of Makkah. He came to Al-Madinah and embraced Islam in 8 AH.
7. ‘Ikrimah, the son of Abu Jahl, who was the great enemy of Islam, embraced Islam in 8 AH.
8. ‘Adi was an important man of his area. He was the son of the great Hatim Ta’i. He was brave. He accepted Islam in 9 AH.
9. Ukaidir, the ruler of Daumat-al-Jandal, embraced Islam in 9 AH.
10. Dhial-Kala’ was the ruler of Ta’if, and a portion of the Yemen and Himyar Tribes. He was worshipped as god. When he became a Muslim, he left the kingdom and lived unknown. He accepted this religion in 9th AH.
The Tribes embrace Islam
Besides kings and rulers, the great tribes of Arabia too accepted Islam out of love and admiration and came to Al-Madinah from afar to pay respects to the Prophet (pbuh). The details are worth study in the book titled ‘Rahmatul-lil-‘Alameen.’
8th year of Hijrah
1. Makkah was conquered this year wherefrom the Prophet (pbuh) was forced by the polytheists to emigrate and where it was difficult for the poor Muslims to stay without fear and where it was fraught with danger to discuss Islam. That year the Ka’bah was cleared of 260 idols. Now this place began to be used for the worship of one God for which this was constructed four thousand years ago.
2. Battle of Hunain was also fought this year.
9th year of Hijrah
1. This year Hajj was made obligatory for the Muslims. Abu Bakr was made the leader of the pilgrims, and several hundred Muslims performed Hajj.
2. At the stance of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), ‘Ali Murtuda ( made this declaration that in future no polytheist would enter the Ka’bah, no male or female would go undressed round its precincts, and the promises with those who had broken pledges would not be respected.
3. Battle of Tabuk was also held this year.
10th year of Hijrah
The Prophet (pbuh) performed the Hajj. In this holy pilgrimage, one lakh and 44 thousand Muslims participated. On this occasion, the Prophet (pbuh) explained all the principles of Islam. He did away with the rituals and polytheism of the early Ignorance Period. He bade farewell to the community of his followers.
11th year of Hijrah
The Prophet (pbuh) conveyed the Message of Allah to all for 23 years and 5 days and showed the right path of Allah, and passed away from this mundane world at the age of 63 years and 5 days, on 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal, on Monday. “We are for Allah and undoubtedly we all return to Him.”
Address to the People
One month before his death, the Prophet (pbuh) called all the Muslims to assemble and addressed them: “May Allah protect you and keep you in peace and tranquillity, help you and raise your status, keep you under His Protection and save you from upheavals and secure your religion for you! Exhort you to be pious and honest and fearful of Allah. I hand over you to Allah. I now make you my representative on the earth. I make you fear Allah’s perdition. Hope you would see that people realize this. You should try that disobedience, pride and haughtiness do not spread among people and areas. The Hereafter is for those who are not proud and vain. Hereafter is good for those who are pious. I do foresee that you will be masters of great kingdoms. I do not think that you will turn infidels but I fear lest you might perish like other nations of the world if you fall into worldliness and wickedness.” Some days before his departure from this world, he again called the Muslims and gave certain instructions about the Ansar (helpers) and Muhajireen (emigrants). He then asked people to demand if he owed to anyone. One person stood up and said that he paid three dirhams to a poor man at his direction but these were not returned to him. The Prophet (pbuh) paid him instantly. Then he fervently prayed to Allah for the good of many people. During his ailment, he also asked people to behave sincerely and humanely with male and female slaves and give them proper and adequate food and clothes and treat them gently. During the agonies of death, he uttered: “Prayer, prayer (Salat), slave women rights.” The last word that he spelt out looking towards the sky was this “Allah is the Greatest Colleague.”
Uncles: The Prophet (pbuh) had nine uncles; out of them only Hamzah and ‘Abbas embraced
Islam. Abu Talib was devoted to the Prophet (pbuh) and was his supporter.
Aunts: Six were his (paternal) aunts among whom Safiyah reverted to Islam.
Wives: Every wife of the Prophet (pbuh) bears the surname of Umm-ul-Mu’mineen (the Mother of the believers). They are listed here:
1. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Khadijatul-Kubra She is the first wife of the Prophet. Perceiving honesty, integrity and blissfulness in him, she herself proposed to him. Except Ibrahim, all children were born to her. The Prophet (pbuh) always recalled her truthfulness and friendliness even after her death.
2. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Saudah She embraced Islam along with her husband, Sakran. Her mother also accepted Islam. Then all the three emigrated to Habash (Abyssinia). Her husband died there. The Prophet (pbuh) married her in the 10th year of his Prophethood after the death of Khadijatul-Kubra.
3. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Aishah She was the daughter of Abu Bakr Siddiq . Abu Bakr helped the Prophet (pbuh) with all his might and means in such a way that the Prophet (pbuh) used to say that he repaid all, but only Allah would repay for the services rendered by Abu Bakr to him. By the Order of Allah, the Prophet (pbuh) married her daughter. The marriage took place at Makkah while the consummation of the marriage took place in Al-Madinah Al-Munnawwarah in 2 H. She was learned enough to solve the intricate problems for the Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) who sought her help. Two thousand two hundred and ten Ahadith are related to her.
4. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Hafsah She was the daughter of Umar Farooq. She had emigrated to Habash with her first husband and then to Al-Madinah. Her husband was wounded in the battle of Uhud and died of it. The Prophet (pbuh) married Hafsah in 3 AH. She was greatly religious minded and devoted lady.
5. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Zainab bint Khuzaimah She was first married to Tufail bin Harith and then to ‘Ubaidah bin Harith. They were both Prophet’s own cousins. Then she was married to ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh who was Prophet’s paternal aunt’s son. He was martyred in the battle of Uhud. The Prophet (pbuh) married her in 4 H. She lived only three months after the marriage. She helped the poor and destitute so much that she was generally known as Umm-ul-Masakin (the mother of the poor and deserving).
6. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Umm Salamah She was first married to Abu Salamah ‘Abd bin Al-Asad who was Prophet’s cousin and foster brother. She emigrated to Habash with her husband and then to Al-Madinah and in her journey from Makkah to Al-Madinah she travelled alone. Abu Salamah was wounded in the battle of Uhud and that led to his death. He left four orphans. The Prophet (pbuh) pitied upon them and married her in 4 H.
7. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Zainab bint Jahsh She was the cousin (the daughter of paternal aunt) of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh), through his efforts, got her married to Zaid (who was set free as a slave. But she could not carry on well with her husband and she was forsaken although the Prophet (pbuh) tried to persuade him not to do so. For her disgrace and trouble, she was favoured by Allah as she came into matrimonial alliance with the Prophet (pbuh) in 5 H. Critics say that the Prophet (pbuh) saw her one day suddenly. So he got married to her after separating matrimonial relationship with an adopted son. But they do not take the following facts into account:
1. Zainab was Prophet’s cousin (daughter of his paternal aunt) and she was brought up in the family and her face was not new and unknown.
2. Her first marriage with Zaid was made possible by the efforts of the Prophet (pbuh) himself.
3. Adoption of a child is not permitted in Islam.
8. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Juwairiyah She was made a prisoner in a battle and she came under the custody of Thabit bin Qais as his booty. He was twenty years old. A price was fixed for her and she could be free if the price fixed for her was paid. So she came to the Prophet (pbuh) for some donation. She also declared that she had embraced Islam. The Prophet (pbuh) paid the whole amount and she was then liberated. The Prophet expressed his desire to enter into matrimonial alliance with her in order to avoid payments for other prisoners. When the army came to know that the prisoner was now a relative of the Prophet (pbuh), all the prisoners were released. By this gesture the Prophet (pbuh) saved more than a hundred of people becoming slaves and attendants. The marriage took place in 6 AH.
9. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Umm Habibah She was the daughter of Abu Sufyan (. She reverted to Islam when her father was fighting against the Prophet (pbuh). She faced many troubles for the cause of Islam. Then she emigrated to Habash with her husband where her husband renounced his Faith and the devoted lady who had left her parents, family, tribe and house for the sake of Islam was left alone. In a strange land the support she had enjoyed from her husband was denied to her because of his change of Faith. The Prophet (pbuh) married her in 7 AH in view of her fortitude and deplorable plight. The ceremony was performed in Habash (Abyssinia) so that her ordeal might come to an end soon.
10. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Safiyyah She was the daughter of Huyai bin Akhtab bin Shu’bah, the grand child of Prophet Harun (. Her mother’s name was Barrah bint Samwal. She was twice married earlier. She had a noble descent from the Jews tribes Banu Quraizah and Banu Nadir. She was captivated in the battle of Khaibar. The Prophet (pbuh) manumitted her and married her in Jumada-al-Ukhra, 7th H. She was 17 years of age at the time of the marriage. One day, the Prophet (pbuh) noticed that she was weeping. On asking she told the Prophet (pbuh) that she heard that Hafsah, the wife of the Prophet (pbuh) considered her inferior than her as she had her lineage with the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet said that she should have told Hafsah that as her father is Prophet Harun (pbuh), her uncle is Prophet Musa (pbuh), and her husband is Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), how she can be superior to her. Safiyyah died in the month of Ramadan, 50 H.
11. Umm-ul-Mu’mineen Maimunah She was twice married earlier. Her one sister was married to ‘Abbas, one to Hamzah, and one to Ja’far Taiyyar and another was the mother of Khalid bin Walid. The Prophet’s uncle ‘Abbas talked about her and he married her at the instance of his uncle in 7 H. All these marriages were performed before the revelation of the verse that restricts marriage beyond four, and this has been permitted only on the condition that justice and equality would be accorded to them all. Slaves: There were twelve slaves but they were all set free. Women slaves were three. Umm Aiman was one of them who had been his nursemaid. The Prophet (pbuh) respected her much. Sons: Qasim, ‘Abdullah and Ibrahim were his sons. All died in their childhood. Daughters: His daughters were four:
(1) Zainab whos, husband was Abul-‘Aas bin Rabi’.
(2) Ruqaiyyah. Her husband was Uthman Ghani
(3) Umm Kulthum, who was also married to Uthman Ghani (Umm Kulthum was married to him after the death of Ruqaiyyah).
(4) Fatimah whose husband was ‘Ali Murtuda. Hasan and Husain were her sons.
Attributes and Manners of the Prophet (pbuh)
The Prophet (pbuh) used to say that he was sent as a Prophet to the world to present an ideal of good deeds and lofty character. Someone asked Aishah about the Prophet’s manners. She said that his manners were the manners prescribed by the Qur’an. She later clarified that a tree is recognized by the taste of its fruits. Similarly a man is known by his manners and knowledge. From the Qur’an you can know about the nature and manners of the Prophet (pbuh). The Noble Qur’an has designated him Rahmatul-lil-‘Alameen (the blessing for the worlds), and the history of the times reveals that he was truly a symbol of Divine mercy. A Hadith elucidates the character of the Prophet (pbuh) in the following words: He is the epitome of good manners. He gives good tidings to the believers and warnings to disbelievers. He gives shelter to strangers. He is the slave of Allah and is His Messenger. He leaves everything to Him. He is gentle in manners and talks. His voice is never shrill. Evils done to him are not retaliated. He is busy in modifying and elevating the lives of the people and leveling the path of religion. He has a task to preach and establish the Oneness of Allah. His teachings impart insight and develop understanding, and the ignorant is made aware of the realities of life and the world. He is adorned with all the qualities and good manners. He is a man of good deeds and virtues. His conscience is pure and clean and symbolic of piety. His words are replete with wisdom. Truthfulness and friendliness are his nature. He is forgiving and obliging. Justice is his hallmark. Truthfulness is his religion and guidance is his leader. His religion is Islam and his name is Ahmad. He guides where darkness is spread; he instructs where ignorance prevails. He uplifts those who are infamous, and encourages those who are depressed and unknown in the society. He endeavors to bring richness and plenty where scarcity and want reign. It was by virtue of his presence that Allah’s Grace had brought about unity and love in place of dissension and strives, and created affections and fellowship in hearts that were river apart, and united into a single bond diverse clans and tribes with heterogeneous interests. His Ummah (community) is the best Ummah. The people are led to right directions. It is his prime task which he performs intelligently.
Patience and Fortitude
1. The inhabitants of Ta’if once stoned and wounded the Prophet (pbuh) and he fell
unconscious. Angels wanted to destroy the village if they were permitted to, but they
were prevented by him from doing so as he hoped that their descendants, if not they,
would embrace Islam.
2. A Jew was to be paid his due. The day for the payment was yet to come. He caught hold of the collar of the Prophet (pbuh) and asked for payment of his loan. Upon this ‘Umar Farooq (was infuriated and wanted to kill him. The Prophet (pbuh) intervened and advised him to tell him (the Prophet) to repay splendidly and teach him (the Jew) to demand his due in a good manner. The Prophet (pbuh) then smilingly told the Jew that the appointed day was yet to come.
3. A rustic pulled from behind the cloth sheet of the Prophet (pbuh). His neck became red. When he turned towards him, the poor man asked for help as he was poor and deserving. The Prophet (pbuh) ordered a camel load of barley and dates to be given to him.
Respect and Courtesy
1. He never stretched his legs while sitting among people.
2. He did not allow people to stand paying respects.
3. Whenever a person held his hands, he never tried to remove them.
4. He never interrupted anybody during talks.
5. While riding, he did not allow anyone to follow him on foot. He either gave him a lift or asked him to return. Abu Hurairah says: One day the Prophet (pbuh) was going on a mule without a pad-saddle. I met him. He asked me to ride. Catching hold of the Prophet (pbuh) I tried to sit behind him in vain. I dropped him down in my efforts to mount. The Prophet (pbuh) was again on the animal’s back and asked me to ride. I again failed and dropped him the second time. The Prophet (pbuh) asked me third time to attempt. I expressed my inability to do so and said: “I do not want to drop you anymore.”
Generosity and Munificence
He never rejected the demand of a deserving person. He was always ready to help all. If he had nothing to give, he apologised the needy persons. One person came and made a demand. The Prophet (pbuh) said that he was not in a position to help him. He directed him to go to the market and borrow on his behalf. ‘Umar Farooq ( said that Allah did not give him such trying moments. The Prophet (pbuh) kept silent. A man in the company said that it is blissful to donate in the Name of Allah. The Prophet (pbuh) was greatly pleased with it.
Modesty and Bashfulness
Abu Sa’id Khudri (says that the Prophet (pbuh) was more modest and bashful than a veil observing girl.
1. He bore hardship while performing his tasks but did not ask for other’s help because of his modest behaviour.
2. If he noticed a person doing ignoble work he addressed no comments directly to him but prevented people in general terms from doing such works.
1. Voluntary prayer he used to observe unnoticed and unknown so that his followers might not undergo the difficulty of heavy prayers.
2. He chose the easy path in all matters.
3. He did not permit backbiting. He never wanted to nurture bias and prejudice against any person.
4. He gave sermons sparingly lest people might be disgusted with him.
5. Many a time it so happened that he prayed the whole night for the good of his people (Ummah) and wept bitterly.
1. The Prophet (pbuh) used to say that the believers are his friends but all men deserved
his grace of attention.
2. A woman was taken prisoner in a battle and was brought to the Prophet (pbuh). She told him that she was the daughter of his nursemaid. The Prophet (pbuh) removed his cloth sheet from his person and spread it out for her.
3. The Makkans put hardships and obstacles to the Prophet (pbuh) and his followers and forced them to leave Makkah. Numerous true Muslims were killed as they worshipped Allah. When Makkah was taken over, the Prophet (pbuh) addressed them and condoned all their guilt¼s.
Justice and Moderation
1. In a dispute between two persons, the Prophet (pbuh) adjudicated and he was kind and
merciful in cases where he was a party.
2. A Makkan woman named Fatimah committed a theft. When people brought the recommendation of Usamah bin Zaid who was dear to the Prophet (pbuh). He told them that no recommendation was valid for Divine punishments. He further said that his daughter Fatimah would have the same punishment if she had committed this guilt.
3. The Prophet (pbuh) advocated for moderation. His words are well-known that ‘moderation is called virtue.’ He instructs us to be moderate.
Truthfulness and Trust
1. Truth and trustworthiness of the Prophet (pbuh) was admitted by his bitter critics as
2. He was well-known to his countrymen for his truthfulness and trustworthiness from his boyhood.
3. One day Abu Jahl said to the Prophet (pbuh): “I don’t think that you are a liar but I do not get interested in your religion.”
4. The night the Prophet (pbuh) left his house for Al-Madinah, the enemies had made all arrangements for his assassination. But he allowed his dear cousin ‘Ali to stay that night and come after paying off all the deposits kept with him as a trustee.
Purity and Chastity
1. The Prophet (pbuh) said that storytelling was in vogue at Makkah. He was also fond of listening to stories. He was ten years old. He departed from home for this purpose. On the way he sat down to take rest and soon he fell asleep. He woke up when the sun rose.
2. Another incident relates to the same age of the Prophet (pbuh). There was a marriage function somewhere. Women were singing and playing on drums. He set out to watch the function. On the way he slept till it was morning.
3. He says that he never even thought of any evil activity except the above mentioned acts.
1. The Prophet (pbuh) prayed that he should remain hungry one day and fed the other day so that he could pray with all his might in the state of hunger and express his thanks to Allah when satisfied.
2. Aishah says that the members of the Prophet’s family lived on dates and water for a month or two and the hearth remained cold during the period.
3. Aishah says that the bed of the Prophet (pbuh) at her house was filled with leafy stalks of palms.
4. Hafsah says that in her house the Prophet’s bed was made of sack cloth. It was folded twice and spread out. Once it was made fourfold. Upon this the Prophet (pbuh) forbade her to do so as it became soft.
5. Ibn ‘Auf says that during his life the Prophet (pbuh) did not eat to his satisfaction even loaves of bread made of barley flour.
6. In the last night the Prophet (pbuh) passed in this world, oil was procured on credit from a neighbor for the lamp.
7. After the Prophet’s death it was found that his armor was lying in a Jew’s house. It was mortgaged for food grains.
8. The Prophet (pbuh) directed the members of his family for devotion and prayer as he was used to. His daughter, Fatimah showed her hands bearing boils as a result of grinding flour and burns caused by hot oven and asked for a maid-servant. Upon this the Prophet (pbuh) told her to pray to Allah and ignore the sufferings of the world.
9. The Prophet (pbuh) prayed to Allah to give his people as much as they could keep their body and soul together.
10. These forms of devotion were voluntary. There was no compulsion for them.
1. He stood in voluntary prayers so long that his legs swelled. His Companions wondered why the Prophet (pbuh) should suffer such troubles as he was innocent and pure. Upon this he said that why he should not offer his thanks to Allah for His mercy and kindness.
2. He would lay in prostration for such a long time that he was taken to be dead by the people close to him.
3. During supplications his chest surged and swirled like a cauldron.
4. Having read the verses of blessings he sought benediction, and after reading the verses of affliction he trembled.
5. He fasted regularly for several days but forbade others to observe those fasts.
1. The Prophet (pbuh) used to meet all cheerfully.
2. He brought up orphans and helped widows.
3. He loved the poor and deserving persons and used to sit with them.
4. He could sit on the bare ground without making any distinction for his self.
5. He used to care for the slaves and attendants in their ailments.
6. If a Muslim died in debt, his loan was paid from the treasury and then he was buried
7. If a sincere person breathed his last, he participated in the funeral rites.
8. Hypocrites displayed impertinence in his presence and supported his enemies but the Prophet (pbuh) never took revenge on them.
9. Once Christians from Najran came there. He allowed them to offer their prayer according to their beliefs in the mosque.
10. Once in a jungle people were slaughtering a goat. One person was ready to slaughter and clean and the other was prepared to cut the meat into pieces and the third man was willing to cook it. The Prophet (pbuh) then decided to bring logs of wood. But they all requested him not to take the trouble but he said that he did not want to remain idle.
Compassion and Forgiving
1. Hamzah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib (, the dear uncle of the Prophet (pbuh), was treacherously
slain by Wahshi, a slave of Abu Sufyan’s wife, Hindah. He mutilated his nose and ears.
The liver of the martyred Hamzah was carved out and chewed on the battlefield. Despite
this Prophet (pbuh) forgave him when he asked for it.
2. Habbar struck Zainab, the eldest daughter of the Prophet (pbuh), with a spear and she fell from the camel-litter and aborted and she died from it. The Prophet pardoned him when he asked for it.
3. Once the Prophet (pbuh) was sleeping under a tree and his sword was hanging on the branch of a tree. His enemy came and took the sword and impertinently awakened the Prophet (pbuh) and asked him who would save him. The Prophet (pbuh) instantly replied that Allah would take care of him. He became unconscious and fell down and his sword dropped from his hand. The Prophet (pbuh) picked up the sword and asked him who could save him. Then he was astounded. He then asked the man to go as revenge he never cherished.
4. The Prophet (pbuh) did away with the issues that were the causes of battles during the early years of Ignorance (Jahiliyyah). He also declared to abandon the claims for compensation for murder done to his family. Loans given by his uncle were also remitted by him.
The Prophet’s Teachings
There is a large corpus of the Prophet’s ideas and thoughts, instructions and teachings, beliefs and morals, manners and principles. The greatness and glory of Islam rest upon these ideals. Only a portion of it is listed here.
Purity of Self
1. Wise is he who regards himself small, and performs deeds that are useful after death; foolish is he who is dictated by his self and expectant of Allah’s grace and mercy.
2. Brave is the man who controls his self, not the one who demolishes his adversary.
3. Contentment is a treasure that is never empty.
4. To give up the inessential is highly religious.
5. Advice is a trust and wrong instruction is a breach of trust.
6. To give up evil or wickedness is also a charity.
7. Virtue lies in modesty.
8. Health and comforts are the blessings not available to all.
9. Moderation in expenditure is equal to half income. (Spending with sense is as good as half of income).
10. Prudence is but wisdom.
11. Religious is the one who keeps promises.
12. Wisdom is the greatest wealth.
13. Eloquence is the charm of man.
14. Ignorance is the greatest limitation.
15. Religious is one who is trustworthy.
16. Love is not as effective as good manners.
17. Humility elevates one’s position.
18. Alms-giving does not lead to diminution of wealth.
19. Don’t scoff at your brother lest you might meet the like situation.
20. Bad manners spoil good qualities as vinegar spoils honey.
Obedience to Parents
1. Allah is pleased when the father is pleased. Allah is displeased when the father is displeased.
2. Of all the deeds performed, offering of prayers on time is the best, and then the second in importance is obedience to parents.
3. The greatest sin is polytheism, and disobedience to parents, and then giving false evidences and telling lies.
Behaviour with Relatives
Rahm (kinship) is derived from Rahman. The man who maintains bonds of kinship is close to Allah and one who severs relation from one’s kin is forsaken by Allah.
Bringing up of Daughters
1. One who trains and educates 3 or 2 daughters or sisters out of fear of Allah will go to Paradise (even if the number is one).
2. Bringing up of daughters is a test; one who passes the test will be safe from Hell.
Bringing up of Orphans
One who brings up orphans will remain with me (the Prophet (pbuh)) like the two fingers of a hand.
Obedience to Kings
1. The king should be obeyed on the earth.
2. If a slave happens to be a ruler, his obedience is compulsory for you.
3. Kingdom is lost not through disbelief but through tyranny.
One who is not merciful and kind cannot claim mercy upon him.
Evils of Beggary
1. One who begs is rather collecting fire (of Hell) for oneself whether it is
small or much.
2. The worst is the man who begs in the Name of Allah and still gets nothing. Don’t beg from men for Allah’s sake. It is better to demand from Allah Himself.
1. Those that are not kind to the young and do not respect the elders do not
belong to us.
2. Be kind to people on the earth and Allah will be Merciful in heaven.
3. A true Muslim is like a mirror for others. Point out weakness in a brother if you find it in him.
4. In friendliness and sympathy take lessons from the wall where bricks strengthen one another.
5. To meet cheerfully, to talk about virtues and prevent people from vices and villainy, to show the right path to those who have lost the way, to lead weak-sighted persons on the way, to remove thorns, stones, and bones from paths and to draw water from wells for others, are all deeds of virtue.
6. To greet and feed the poor and to say prayers alone at night are the good signs of Islam.
7. Only courteous men will be close and dear to me on the Day of Judgement. I shall be disgusted and distant from those who are not well-behaved. I am also sick of those who talk nonsense and discuss things irresponsibly and are proud.
8. To live comfortable is not pride. It is to degrade the people and to reject the truth.
9. Love all; in it is half wisdom.
10. Don’t say to behave well only when others behave well and to do mischief if others do mischief rather try to oblige those who behave well with you and do not create mischief if they do likewise.
The Greatness of Learning
1. One who seeks knowledge finds the road to Paradise easier.
2. As long as you are in search of knowledge, you are in the path of Allah.
3. Quest for learning is atonement for past sins.
4. A taste for research is half learning.
5. Learning is greater than devotion and prayer in importance.
6. Knowledge and wisdom are your lost treasures; seek them where you find.
7. He who conceals his knowledge will be reined with fire.
8. Nothing in the world is better than the getting together of knowledge and patience.
Treatment with Slaves, Women Servants and Attendants
1. Slaves and women slaves are like your brothers. Allah has kept them under your supervision. Equal treatment be given to them in food and clothing. They should not be asked to bear more than their strength and capacity. In difficult tasks they should be rendered assistance and support.
2. To liberate slaves or women slaves is to get liberated from Hell.
3. A person asked the Prophet (pbuh) how many times an attendant should be pardoned. He said that this should be allowed seventy times in a day. The letter of the Messenger (pbuh) to the chief of Bahrain Mundhir bin Sawi inviting him to embrace Islam. By the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. From Muhammad, Allah’ Messenger (pbuh) to Mundhir bin Sawi. Peace be on you. I praise Allah with you; there is no true god except Him. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger and slave. After that: I remind you of Allah the Exalted:
Whoever takes admonition, he takes it for himself, whoever obeys my messengers and follows their command, obeys me. Whoever has sincerity with them is sincere with me. My messengers have highly praised your behaviour. I have accepted your recommendation regarding you people. So whoever becomes a Muslim, leave him on his own. I have pardoned those people who have committed sins, you also pardon them. As for as you will be right, we will not dissolve you from your duty. And whoever remains on Jewism or Magianism, he should pay protection tax.
Muhammad the Messenger of Allah.